Qutab-ud-din Aibak, the first Muslim ruler of Delhi, commenced the construction of the Qutab Minar in 1200 AD, but could only finish the basement. His successor, Iltutmush, added three more storeys, and in 1368, Firoz Shah Tughlak constructed the fifth and the last storey. The development of architectural styles from Aibak to Tughlak are quite evident in the minar. The relief work and even the materials used for construction differ.
Some believe it was erected as a tower of victory to signify the beginning of the Muslim rule in India. Others say it served as a minaret to the muezzins to call the faithful to prayer. No one can, however, dispute that the tower is not only one of the finest monuments in India, but also in the world.
The 238 feet Qutab Minar is 47 feet at the base and tapers to nine feet at the apex. The tower is ornamented by bands of inscriptions and by four projecting balconies supported by elaborately decorated brackets.
Even in ruin, the Quwwat Ui Islam (Light of Islam) Mosque in the Qutab complex is one of the most magnificent in the world. Its construction was started by Qutab-ud-din Aibak in 1193 and the mosque was completed in 1197. Additions were made to the building by Iltutmush in 1230 and Alla-ud-din Khilji in 1315.
Red Fort is one amongst the foremost splendid palaces within the world. India’s history is additionally closely linked with this fort. it had been frorth here ht the british deposed the last Mughal ruler, Bhadur shah Zafar, marking the end of the 3 century long Mughal rule. it had been conjointly fromits ramparts that the primary prime. Minister of Bharat, pandit Jawharlal nehru, proclaimed to the state that Bharat was free form colonial rule.
The mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, when ruling from metropolis for eleven years, determined to shift to city and set the inspiration stone of the Red Fort in 1618. For its inauguration in 1647, the most halls of the palace were draped in wealthy tapestry and lined with silk from china and velvet from Turkey. With a circumference of virtually one and a 0.5 miles, the fort is Associate in Nursing irregular polygon and has 2 entrances, the city and city Gates.
Form the city Gate, a traveller has access to the Chatta Chowk (vaulted arcade ) that as once a royal market and housed court jewelers, miniature painters carpet makers, staff in enamel, silk weavers and families of specialised craftsmen. The road from the royal market results in the Nawabarkhana (band house) wherever the royal band contend 5 times every day. The band house conjointly marks the entry into the most palace and every one guests, except royalty had to dismount here.
The Diwani-I-Am is that the Red Fort’s hall of public audience. designed of arenaceous rock lined with shell plaster polished to appear like ivory, the 80 x 40 feet hall is sub-divided by columns. The Mughal emperors would hold court here and meet dignitaries and foreign emissaries. the foremost imposing feature of the Diwqani-I-Am is that the niche within the back wall wherever the emperor weekday in state on a richly lapidarian and adorned marble platform. within the recess behind the platform are fine samples of Italian pietra-dura work.
The piece First State resistance of the fort, the Diwan-I-Khas was the hall of personal audience. the foremost extremely embellished of all Shah of Iran Jahan’s buildings, the 90 x 67 feet Diwani-I-Khas could be a tent of white marble supported by in an elaborate way carved pillars. thus enamoured was the emperor by the wonder of this tent that he carved on that the subsequent words: If there’s paradise on the face of this earth, it is this, it is this.”
Covering a circuit of about a mile, the walls of the fort have three gates and are surrounded by a mat fed by the river Yamuna.
The wall was built by Humayun while the buildings in the fort are attributed to Sher Shar. The notable buildings that have survived in the fort are the Sher Mandal and the Quila-I-kholina Mosque. Sher Mandal could be a 2 storeyed octagonal tower that was used by Humayun as his library. The mosque, designed around 1541-42, could be a landmark in Indo Muslim design.
The designer has shown talent by enriching every give moulding, bracketed openings, marble inlay, carving and alternative institutions. a range of materials have additionally been accustomed construct the tiny house of prayer (168 x forty four feet). the doorway arch is of marble, the spandrels of red arenaceous rock decorated with marble bossed, the columns and pilasters of black and white marble.
Under patronage from the emperor, he set on himself the task of correcting the prevailing astronomical tables and change the almanac with a lot of reliable instruments. Delhi’s Jantar Mantar is that the initial of the 5 observatories that he built with giant masonary instruments.
At first sight, the Jantar Mantar seems like a gallery of recent art.It is, however, an observatory. Sawai Jia Singh II of Jaipur (1699-1743), a keen astronomer and a noble in the Mughal court, was dissatisfied by the errors of brass and metal astronomical instruments.
The observatory has the Samrat Yantra, a simple equal hour sun dial, the Ram yantra for reading altitudinal angles; Jai Prakash for ascertaining the position of the sun and other celestial bodies, and also the Misra Yantra that could be a combination of 4 scientific gadgets.
The first mature example of Mughal design in Republic of India, Humayun’s spot was designed by the emperor’s bereaved widow, Haji Begum, in 1565 AD.The mughals brought with them a love for gardens, fountains and water.
Constructed with red arenaceous rock and ornate marks the start of a replacement tradition of ornate vogue that culminated within the Taj Mahal of agra.
Designed by the Persian creator, Mirza Ghyas, Humayun’s spot shows a marked shift from the Persian tradition of using colored tiles for ornamentation.
Located within the inside of an outsized sq. garden, screened by high walls, with gateways to the south and west, the spot could be a sq. tower head by a powerful marble dome. The dome stands a hundred and forty feet from the bottom of the terrace and is flat-topped with a copper pinnacle.
In addition to the remains of Humayun, the advanced additionally homes the grave of the many different distinguished members of the Mughal dynasty.
Work on the Jama place of worship house of God was begun in 1650 by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to enrich his palace at the Red Fort. over 5,000 staff toiled for 6 years to complete the most important house of God in Republic of India. each Fri, the emperor and his suite would travel in state from the fort to the house of God to attend the legislature prayers.
A fine example of Mughal design, the Jama place of worship has 3 gateways. the most important and highest on the east was reserve completely for the emperor. the most curtilage of the emperor. the most curtilage of the house of God is 408 sq. feet and made-up with red stone. within the centre could be a giant marble tank within which the devout wash before attending prayers.
The main house of God is topped by 3 onion formed domes made from white marble and adorned with stripes of black slate. On the north and south of the complicated ar 2 a hundred thirty feet high minarets which provide a spectacular bird’s eye-view of town. Jama place of worship isn’t solely architecturally lovely, however conjointly an area of nice spiritual significance because it homes a hair from the beard of the Prophet and conjointly a chapter of the Holy religious writing written by him.
Built in 1753 by Nawab Shauja-ud-Daula to house the remains of his father, who was a minister in the Mughal court, the tomb is referred to as the “last flicker in the lamp of Mughal architecture.”
It shows however the grace and ease of he Mughals had been overtaken by abasement. The place additionally has a masjid. Representing the last section of the Mughal sort of design, Safdarjang’s place stands within the centre of an intensive garden.
Located on Rajpath, the road that ends up in the splendid Rashtrapati Bhawan, the gate is 160 sixty feet high with an arch of 138 feet.
Built as a memorial to commemorate the 70,000 India soldiers killed in World War I, India Gate was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and completed in 1931.
Engineered from arenaceous rock, the arch additionally homes the Eternal Flame, a gesture in memory of the Indian troopers who ordered their lives within the 1971 war with Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
At one time, 2,000 people were required to look after the building and serve the Viceroy’s household. The lodge also has impressive garden called the Mughal Garden, which is open to public twice in a year, usually in February and March.
Formely the Viceregal Lodge, the building is the highlight of Lutyen’s New Delhi and was completed in 1929 at a cost of 12,53,000 pound sterling. Located in an area of 130 hectares, the palace has 340 rooms.
A simple open platform inscribed with the Mahatma’s last words, ‘Hey Ram’ (Oh God) is about in an exceedingly garden with fountains and a spread of exotic trees.The mortal remains of Mahatma Gandhi were cremated on this spot on the west bank of the river Yamuna on the evening of January 31, 1948.
Lakshmi Narayan Mandir
Built in 1938, the temple is a perfect introduction to a number of the gods of the Bharat pantheon. The temple contains an oversized variety of idols and guests can even watch monks playing pattern prayers.
The National museum on Janpath is that the premier repository of antiquities. in-built 1960, it’s a unprecedented assortment representing the whole span of Indian civilization from pre-historic times.Its galleries include finds from the Indus Valley Civilization, superb sculptures in stone, and bronzes from the Chola period, the largest collection of miniature paintings in the world, manuscripts, a Buddhist Gallery,
together with relics of mystic from Piprahwa, the exquisite jewellery Gallery, the social science Gallery of social group art; galleries dedicated to ornamental and applied arts, Maritime Heritage and pre-Columbian art, and also the Central Asian Antiquities, Gallery of Auriel Stein’s finds on the traditional Silk Route (the nice murals but, square measure on show at the adjacent anthropology Survey of India).
The National Gallery of contemporary Art, housed within the residence of Jaipur’s former maharajas incorporates a very good assortment of paintings dating from one hundred fifty years past to the current day. Company faculty paintings of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and therefore the works of Rabindranath Tagore, Jammi Roy and Amrita Sher Gil hold pride of place amidst exhibits, that offer an outline of the evolution of contemporary Indian paintings and sculpture. The National depository and therefore the National Gallery of contemporary Art sporadically organize special exhibitions.
The Rail Transport depository could be a should for rail buffs. Its vintage show includes the oldest locomotive within the world-still working; the governor Dinning automobile (1889) and therefore the blue blood of Wales Saloon (1876). kids will fancy a ride on the miniature rail track.
The Nehru Memorial depository is at young Murti House wherever statesman lived for sixteen years until his death in 1964. its special charm is that the rooms are preserved as they were. shortly from here is that the statesman Memorial wherever one gets a glimpse of the lifetime of the late Late Prime Minister.
The Ghandi Memorial depository incorporates a assortment of record on Mahatma Gandhi. The Crafts depository at Pragati Maidan has galleries displaying India’s wealthy tradition of handicrafts. a new attraction is that the presence of craftsperson United Nations agency square measure bought here from totally different components of the country to demonstrate their skills. during this central a part of town are set the National aggregation depository of explanation, Mandi House, and therefore the Malliah on Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg.
The Xizang House depository on Lodi Road incorporates a fine assortment of tankhas, jewelry and ritual objects. on the way to city square measure the Shankar’s Dolls depository of anthropology associated with the Mughal era, and therefore the depository of Arms and Weapons that traces the event of arms from the Mughal age to the primary war.
- Archeological Museum
- Rail Transport Museum
- National Gallery of Modern Art
- Crafts Museum
- National Children’s Museum
- Shankar’s International Dolls Museum
- Tibet House Museum
- Gandhi Memorial Museum